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What Are “Special Needs”?

Two Kids at School - Cultura/Sigrid Gombert/Getty Images

One Term, Many Definitions:

“Special Needs” is an umbrella underneath which a staggering array of diagnoses can be wedged. Children with special needs may have mild learning disabilities or profound cognitive impairment; food allergies or terminal illness; developmental delays that catch up quickly or remain entrenched; occasional panic attacks or serious psychiatric problems. The designation is useful for getting needed services, setting appropriate goals, and gaining understanding for a child and stressed family.

Minuses and Pluses:

“Special needs” are commonly defined by what a child can’t do — by milestones unmet, foods banned, activities avoided, experiences denied. These minuses hit families hard, and may make “special needs” seem like a tragic designation. Some parents will always mourn their child’s lost potential, and many conditions become more troubling with time. Other families may find that their child’s challenges make triumphs sweeter, and that weaknesses are often accompanied by amazing strengths.

Different Concerns:

Pick any two families of children with special needs, and they may seem to have little in common. A family dealing with developmental delays will have different concerns than one dealing with chronic illness, which will have different concerns than one dealing with mental illness or learning problems or behavioral challenges. This Parenting Special Needs site devotes sections to the following specific issues: medical, behavioral, developmental, learning, and mental health.

Medical Issues:

Medical issues for children include serious conditions like cancer and heart defects, muscular dystrophy and cystic fibrosis; chronic conditions like asthma and diabetes; congenital conditions like cerebral palsy and dwarfism; and health threats like food allergies and obesity. Children with medical issues may require numerous tests, long hospital stays, expensive equipment, and accommodations for disabilities. Their families have to deal with frequent crises, uncertainty, and worry.

Behavior Issues:

Children with behavior issues don’t respond to traditional discipline. With diagnoses like ADHD, Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, Dysfunction of Sensory Integration, and Tourette Syndrome, they require specialized strategies that are tailored to their specific abilities and disabilities. If those strategies are not developed and used, kids with behavior issues throw their families into chaos and are seriously at risk for school problems. Their parents need to be flexible and creative.

Developmental Issues:

Developmental disabilities are some of the most devestating for a family to deal with, changing visions of the future and providing immediate difficulties in caring for and educating a child. Diagnoses like autism, Down syndrome and intellectual disabilities often cause children to be removed from the mainstream, and parents must be fierce advocates to make sure their children receive the services, therapy, schooling, and inclusion they need and deserve.

Learning Issues:

Children with learning disabilities like dyslexia and Central Auditory Processing Disorder struggle with schoolwork regardless of their intellectual abilities. They require specialized learning strategies to meet their potential and avoid self-esteem problems and behavioral difficulties. Parents of learning-challenged kids need to be persistent both in working with their reluctant learners and with the schools that must provide the help these children need.

Mental Health Issues:

A child’s problems with anxiety or depression can sneak up on parents; problems with attachment may smack them right in the face. Living with a child with mental health issues can put family members on a roller coaster of mood swings and crises and defiance. Parents have to find the right professionals to help, and make hard decisions about therapy, medications, and hospitalization. The consequences of missed clues and wrong guesses can be significant.

Common Concerns:

Although every special-needs child is different and every family is unique, there are some common concerns that link parents of challenged kids, including getting appropriate care and accommodations; promoting acceptance in the extended family, school and community; planning for an uncertain future; and adjusting routines and expectations. Parents of children with special needs are often more flexible, compassionate, stubborn and resilient than other parents. They have to be.

The Bears in the Park: Anxiety and the Autism Parent


Leigh Merryday

I read with interest recently a post by psychiatrist Dr. Gail Saltz, “This Is You on Stress.” Being stressed out all the time, I’m increasingly aware of the effects of stress. Dr. Saltz says stress is an evolutionary thing, a fight or flight response triggered by a perceived danger. In dangerous situations — such as the possibility of encountering bears in a park — it keeps us aware and can save our lives. The problem, she says, is when you are removed from the danger but the fight or flight instinct is still going. That kind of anxiety is harmful. She goes on to suggest some strategies for breaking the cycle of unhelpful stress when danger isn’t nearby. I thought about that for a while and how to use those strategies to stop stressing and calm down. I thought about those bears in the park.

And that’s when I realized. It’s no wonder parents of severely autistic children are increasingly being diagnosed with anxiety disorders, PTSD, depression, etc. It’s not because of their children. No, our children give us just as much joy as any others. It’s because there is rarely a time when you aren’t in the park looking around for all those bears.

What and who are these bears? There are many. Elopement, bullying, failure of school districts to provide an appropriate IEP, medical and dental appointments, unfamiliar situations, loud noises, lack of autism awareness, lack of autism acceptance, loved ones who don’t get it, judgmental stares and comments from strangers, inaccessibility from grocery store carts to Disney World, respite care, insurance battles, lack of appropriate housing for autistic adults, and on and on.

So we rarely leave that park. And we stand — fight or flight response at the ready — clutching the hands of our children all the time. While trying to live our lives in all the necessary ways. Meeting the needs of other children. Nurturing our marriages. Paying bills. Working. Caring for older family members. Taking care of ourselves — which, like this list, always comes last. But we do all of these things while anxiously looking around, listening, and facing those bears when we encounter them.

I’d like to follow Dr. Saltz’s suggestions. I’d like to try meditation, thinking myself calm, and reminding myself that I’m out the situation. Except I’m not. I don’t have the luxury of letting down my guard. Because if I do, the bears are still there. My child will not receive an appropriate education. He may be traumatized by people not trained to work with autistic children. Someone might forget to latch a door. A door within minutes of busy intersections and bodies of water. He might be treated as a disorder and not a child. No, the only time I can relax is when he is safe in bed and the house alarm engaged. Even then fears of my own mortality (who will take care of him?), his education, his health (feeding issues), and his future haunt me in those witching hours of worry.

The problem is these fears aren’t unjustified. My anxiety isn’t occurring in the absence of danger. These dangers are real. Because this world is not ready to welcome my son. A son who will one day outlive me. A son whom I fear will not — if needed — be cared for by those with good hearts and a desire to allow him as much independence as he is able. A child whom — in the wee hours of the night — I lie awake envisioning as an old man. An old man — perhaps with no family of his own — lying in a bed and taking his last breaths with no one to hold his hand.

Yes, those bears are all around me.

I don’t want stress to win, but it’s ever present. It steals from me sleep, laughter, and peace. Joy? It’s fleeting. Found in bits and snatches — and always bestowed to me by my children. Yes, it’s there. But it’s often stolen by the thieves of anxiety and fear.

And in my darkest moments, I fear that lack of joy is turning me into a bear. Someone who sometimes fails to appreciate the little things. Someone who will fail to pass on joy to my children — who deserve that in their mother.

Some talk about a national autism plan. Do we need one? Yes. Should it resemble any of the depressing and misleading suggestions we’ve heard so far? No. But we must begin to address the needs of children, adults, and families like mine. We must begin to teach our citizens, our schools, our medical personnel, and our law enforcement how to interact with autistic persons. We must learn new ways to teach, engage, employ, and live amongst those who experience the world differently. And we must begin to plan for the futures of the most disabled on the spectrum.

Until then, I remain perpetually on watch for bears.

Mother, blogger, teacher, school media specialist


Do you feel isolated as a special needs family? I know there are plenty of times I do. Our family is different, and our dynamics are different. My friend Erin wrote this post and it resonated so much with me that I asked her if I could share it here.

Erin’s family consists of 2 biological boys, a little girl with cerebral palsy adopted from Ukraine (besides her CP, she also has a diagnosis of microcephaly, some cognitive delays, and falls in the autism spectrum, she also happens to be my daughter’s best friend from the orphanage) and a little girl with Down syndrome adopted  from Bulgaria.

“We’d love for you all to come over for dinner!  The kids can all play in the basement while we visit!”

“Would you like to meet us at the park?”

“You are invited to my child’s birthday party!  It is at 6:00pm.  She’ll have a blast!”

I’m sure you have had those invites.  I’ve had them and accepted them with great joy over and over again in my 13 years of parenting.  I love fun!  I enjoy fellowship with others.  I like time with my friends to laugh and have fun.

Now let me tell you why each of those scenario’s doesn’t work for our family anymore.  My girls absolutely can not be left alone in another person’s house.  Oksana can manage OK in some houses but she still gets into things she shouldn’t, knocks things over because of her balance issues, and trips over things, often hurting herself and/or the children around her.  I don’t leave Anya unattended in my own house where I have it appropriately childproofed for a 5 year old with DS.  There is no way at all I can leave her unattended in someone else’s house.  I learned from experience that Larry and I have no fun at all in these situations and we leave far more frustrated than refreshed.  Oh and don’t forget that now Anya is totally overstimulated and will give us negative behaviors for a couple of hours following our “fun” get together.

So what about the park?  Well let me tell you about that.  I once went to a park outing with a bunch of homeschool moms.  I was SO excited for the chance to visit with these women.  What happened is that they sat together under a pavilion and talked while their kids played.  I ended up on the playground with their kids because Oksana can not be left in a park to navigate the equipment alone.  Now that I have Anya, parks will not be happening at all without Larry.  Anya will end up in the parking lot, or sitting on a stranger’s lap, while I am taking the 20 minutes necessary to help Oksana maneuver the slide while a gaggle of children wait behind her.

Birthday parties?  Certainly every kid loves a birthday party.  We now have to say no to every single evening birthday party invitation.  Trust me, we tried it, and every single one ended in disaster.  Oksana needs her sleep and when we keep her up late and then at the same time totally and completely overstimulate her it ends in a major melt down.

I don’t say this to complain.  I love my life.  There is nothing I have ever wanted more than to parent all 4 of my children regardless of their abilities or impact on my social life.  I say this to help others understand, and to say that living with a family like this puts us at great risk of isolation.  I am involved in a number of online communities and this is a theme I see come up over and over again.  Families are isolated.  They are lonely.  People don’t understand them.  I can relate….and I’m not sure what to do about it.

One solution is to have people to our house.  That is certainly an option.  Can I be honest about this?  It takes a great deal of intention for me to do this.  I know full well that while having people over is the best route for our girls, it is also the hardest route for me.  Now I need to clean my house (I’m sorry if you think that is crazy but I can not comfortably have people over when they have to make a path to get through my living room), I need to consider what I will feed them (did you know I hate cooking?), and I need to give them the speech about what to do if one of my children tries to hug them, sit in their lap, etc.  Then I have to give Oksana the lecture about giving people personal space, not using them to lean on, etc.  Can you see why I’m not on the phone inviting people over every weekend?

We do have other options.  One is that Clayton is 13 and since the girls go to bed so early we can put them to bed and then meet up with people.  I’m not saying we are out of options, simply trying to show that living with kids with special needs can easily put you on a slippery slope to isolation.  Does anyone else feel themselves slipping away?

Erin has a great heart for adoption and special needs. Visit her blog and leave her a message!


As a mother to two little girls who have Down syndrome, I need parents of typically developing kids to know something. I have needs. And yes, they may be a bit special because I have “children with special needs.” Parental support from others in this crazy business of raising kids is essential in a mother or father’s life. So it can be painful when support falls flat, or if it doesn’t show up at all. How do you act around your friends who have children with special needs, or around the woman at school you see at pick-up, or the dad standing behind you in line at the grocery store?

10 special needs of special needs parents:

  • We need you to bring it up. Ask us our stories. It’s OK to ask questions. Most parents of children with special needs would prefer that others ask them about their child directly, rather than avoiding the topic. A smile or friendly “Hello!” is an easy icebreaker.
  • We need our kids to have friends. We want you to invite our kids over for play dates. If your child wants to have a play date with my kid or invite him or her to a birthday party, encourage it. Call the other parent and simply say, “How can we make this work?”
  • We need you to share your concerns. If you are concerned about something regarding my child, by all means, tell me about it. I may not have an answer for you, but I sure will appreciate a conversation about my kid. But we don’t always need your advice. Feel free to talk to us about a new therapy or diet you’ve heard about. Just be aware that we’ve probably already heard of it/tried it.
  • We need you to make an effort. Effort goes a long way. Educate yourself about my child’s special need. For instance, learning simple signs so that you can better communicate with a child who is deaf (and uses sign language) would be appreciated.
  • We need you to prepare your kids to hang out with our kids. If you know you will be spending time with my child who has a disability, talk to your child about it beforehand. Talk about behaviors, and ways your child can play with my child. Need ideas? Ask!
  • We need you to be considerate. Consider the age of the child with special needs. If it is a new baby or a younger kid, I may not be ready to talk about this parenting path I have found myself on. But that doesn’t mean I won’t ever want to talk about it. Follow my lead. I’ll let you know.
  • We need your tangible help. Offer to bring over a meal, or help at a doctor’s visit. I’d love it if you hung out with my kids with special needs one afternoon so that I could take my other kids to a matinee.
  • We need you to treat us like other friends, too. Talk about other things with me besides my child with special needs. Believe it or not, I may just want to gossip about Angelina and Brad and their globe trotting kids.
  • We need validation. Don’t dismiss my concerns by saying “oh, my typical child does that”, or my favorite “well, then my kid must have a disability too, because he/she does XYZ also”. When I open up about a struggle, I want validation, not to be blown off.
  • We need invitations. Don’t assume I’m too busy. Ask me out to eat or to a movie. I may not be able to get away as easily as other friends who don’t have kids with special needs, but I’ll go if I can, and if I can’t, your invitation will make my day. And ask me again!

Your Child’s Early Development is a Journey


Easing the Back-to-School Transition for Kids with Special Needs

boy holding letter blocks spelling learn

As the lazy days of summer draw to a close, mothers everywhere begin preparing themselves and their children to head back to school. For moms of special needs children, the emotions can be more intense and the preparations more involved.

Most parents of kids with special needs start planning for the school year during the spring IEP meetings when goals are set for the upcoming year. With luck, you’ll be introduced to your child’s new teacher at that meeting, as well as other staff members.  Sometimes circumstances change, however, and the teacher you loved winds up in a different district come September. That’s why you shouldn’t consider the spring IEP meeting the final word. But that’s just the first step.

“I request an informal ‘staffing’ with the teachers and team before the school year begins to which all are invited,” says Gloria Perez-Walker, whose 11-year-old son, Aiden has autism.

She explains that with children who have a hard time with transitions, visiting the school prior to the start of the academic year is critical. Perez-Walker writes up a one-page document with her son’s likes and dislikes, an abridged version of their family history, and key points from Aidan’s IEP.  “Not all of his new school staff will have read it,” she explains.  But this way, “the entire new team of teachers, admins, and even the janitorial staff, know us and our son.”

Veteran teacher Nicole Eredics agrees with this approach. Parents should definitely meet the teacher ahead of time and tour the new classroom. “If your child is new to the school, ask if you can see the rest of the building. Don’t forget to check out the playground!” says Eredics, who has spent more than 15 years as an elementary school teacher in inclusive classroom settings and also has two children of her own with special needs.

Back-to-school season is a time of transition, but it doesn’t have to be a time of tantrums and meltdowns if you plan ahead carefully. Here are 10 things you can to do today to help prepare your special needs child for going back to school:

  1. Make a Transition Book
    Take a camera to these meetings and take pictures of everything you can and use them to create a transition book. “This is a book about your child’s new teacher and class. Look at the book regularly to help your child become familiar with the new environment,” Eredics says.

  2. Learn the New Routine
    Ask the teacher to go over the daily classroom routine so that you can review it with your child. Create social stories and review them often so that your child knows what to expect when school starts.

  3. Take Charge
    Of course for children with special needs, back to school doesn’t necessarily mean heading back to a building. Renee Cole has a 7-year-old son who is a former micro-preemie with multiple medical issues. His needs mean that school – like other needed services – comes to him at home. Even so, she says, it’s critical for parents to remember that no one at school knows your child better than you do.  “Be involved!” she advises.   Cole starts each school year by making it clear that she is ultimately in charge of her child’s wellbeing, and that she welcomes input and opinions from his teachers and other service providers. (Be an Advocate for your Child’s Needs.)

  4. Prep Slowly
    It’s also important to remember that kids will pick up on your stress, so make sure you have all your necessary supplies early. “I like to have everything ready a full week before school starts — clothes, supplies, meeting the teacher, as well as have the bedtime routine down. It usually makes for smoother adjustment from summer schedule to school schedule again,” says Deborah Arrona, a Pasadena, Texas, mother to Aria, who has cerebral palsy, cortical visual impairment, and other special needs.

  5. Keep Your IEP Available
    Because Arrona is moving this year, her daughter will be in a new district and Arrona has taken copies of Aria’s IEP to the new school so that it can be distributed to everyone well in advance of the start of the year. “This way they have the whole summer to get to know my daughter on paper and be ready to meet her in person,” she says.

  6. Snap Photos for Social Stories
    You can have one for your morning routine at home, one about going to school, and one for situations your child may encounter at school, such as eating lunch in the cafeteria. Take pictures with your digital camera or cell phone, develop them directly into a book at a local drugstore, and then narrate them with your child again and again.

  7. Make Digital Copies of Your IEP and Other Paperwork
    You’re going to have to send multiple copies of these documents to various professionals throughout the year, and it’s very handy to have them available via email. Stop by an office supply store and have them make you a digital copy as well as an extra hard copy to have on hand.

  8. Schedule Your Well-Child Check up
    Don’t wait until the school nurse calls to say she doesn’t have your child’s updated records. Schedule your child’s appointment as early as possible – and when you schedule the appointment, let them know you need immunization and other records for school.

  9. Talk to Your Child
    So often, adults know what’s going to happen, but they forget to share this critical information with kids. Sit down with your child, and talk about what he can expect. The first twenty (or two hundred!) times you say, “You’re going to a new school!” you may be greeted with a firm “No!” – but eventually the message will sink in.

  10. Prepare a One-Page Guide to Your Child
    Write up a brief, one-page document that covers your child at a glance. Note any food allergies or medical needs the school should know about, things that are likely to set your child off, and things that will calm him down, as well as emergency contact information.


7 Ways to Help Kids with Special Needs Foster Friendships

Photo Credit: imagerymajestic at www.freedigitalphotos.net

Parents of kids with special needs worry about many things: health issues, medical bills, school cooperation, and the future, to name a few. When I talk to parents one-to-one, another worry enters almost every conversation. Will my child have friends?

7 Ways to Help Kids with Special Needs Develop Friendships

In an article for LA Parents, Elaine Hall outlines 7 ways parents can foster friendships between their kids with special needs and other children. Here’s a brief summary of each one.

#1: Be Open to a Different Way of Relating

Kids with special sensory needs crave friendships and empathy. They just express it differently. So find other children who plays well alongside your child to build positive emotional experiences.

#2: Build Friendships Around your Child’s Interests

Observe areas where your child excels and find others who like to do similar activities. Or find classes that explore your child’s preferred interests and passions.

#3: Be Aware of your Child’s Sensory System

Avoid overloading kids with too much stimulus. Find peaceful, quiet places to foster friendships. In calm environments, friendships can be nurtured.

#4: Bring Your Child’s Peers from School into Your Home

Fostering friendships is easier in an atmosphere where your child feels comfortable. A home can be a good environment to teach other kids about your child’s challenges and interests.

#5: Enlist Peer Role Models During School Time

See if there’s a way to pair your child with an athletic peer during recess. The peer can “coach” your child through complicated and confusing games and gain self-esteem by sharing expertise.

#6: Model and Practice What It Means to Be Friendly

You can discuss rules with your child and offer coaching about information most people know instinctively. This will assist your child in learning social rules of play.

#7: Celebrate and Point Out When Your Child Is Being a Good Friend

Offer specific positive feedback when kids demonstrate good friend behavior. Example: That was so nice of you to share your markers with your friend, Caroline.

Hall offers many more explanations, ideas, and links in the article Helping Your Special Needs Build Meaningful Friendships. So check it out and read all the way to the end to read one of my favorite C. S. Lewis quotes.


How to take care of your marriage when you have a child with special needs

BY MARI-JANE WILLIAMS February 18  Follow @marijanewilliam
Taking care of your marriage is important when you're taking care of your child with special needs.(Washington Post)
Taking care of your marriage is important when you’re taking care of your child with special needs.(Washington Post)

I was watching an episode of“Parenthood” the first time I heard the number. The ridiculously high, scary number. You know, the one that says that 80 percent of couples who have a child with autism will get divorced. Yikes.

Except, thankfully, it’s not true.

“It’s an urban legend,” says Laura Marshak, a professor in the department of counseling education at Indiana University of Pennsylvania and co-author of “Married with Special-Needs Children: A Couples’ Guide to Keeping Connected.”

Well, that explains why I could never find any hard data to back up that statement. Because believe me, I tried. I was Googling every possible word combination I could think of, panic-stricken. Nothing.

That’s not to say that couples with a child with a disability don’t face extra challenges, pressures and stress. They do. Marshak says there have been studies that show a higher divorce rate among couples who have a child with special needs, but it’s nowhere near 80 percent, she said.

All marriages have ups and downs. Tossing in kids can intensify whatever strengths or weaknesses are already there. Add a kid with a disability, and well, the stress is amplified. Even though they love their kid like crazy, the worrying and advocating and fighting with insurance companies or schools can wear parents down over time, and make them more snappish with one another.

Sometimes, physical exhaustion from caring for a child who doesn’t sleep well at night wears parents down. Sometimes, one parent puts so much energy into helping the child that they don’t have much left at the end of the day for their spouse. Sometimes, couples feel a disconnect because they disagree about what is best for the child.

Daily life, Marshak said, is more difficult than it otherwise would have been, and not everyone is prepared to deal with that. But it doesn’t have to be a death blow to a marriage, she said.

“There are more difficulties in terms of lack of time and financial demands, and there is certainly more stress,” Marshak said. “But just because a  marriage is more difficult doesn’t mean that it can’t become as strong or even stronger. People tend to equate more difficult with worse.

“Yes, there are more difficulties. But there’s an arc to learning how to have a good marriage under those circumstances. If you learn to adjust and adapt, it can become quite strong. It is just as possible to have a thriving marriage despite those difficulties.”

Marshak recently shared ways couples can maintain a strong marriage when they have a child with special needs. Here are some of her suggestions (which could really apply to all parenting couples):

1. Do not just become “parent-partners.” When parents’ only connection to each other is through or about the child, it can cause problems, Marshak said. She encourages couples to spend 20 to 30 minutes each day connecting to each other, with no talk of the children allowed. That helps you remember the person you fell in love with.

2. Embrace your differences with your partner. Parents may have different ideas about what their expectations should be for their child, or the best course of treatment. One parent may grieve the child’s diagnosis and the other may not. It’s important to not just tolerate, but embrace your partner’s point of view, Marshak said. When you really try to appreciate your partner’s perspective—instead of insisting that he think like you—it can strengthen your relationship.

3. Be proactive when marital resentments build. Whether it’s asking your partner to pitch in more with the household chores or putting him in charge of wrangling with your insurance company, ask for help sooner than later. If you wait until you’re angry, resentment is already building.

4. Get creative when it comes to romance. Date nights are great, Marshak said, but they might not be an option for some parents of kids with disabilities. So look for creative ways to be romantic at home. One mother told Marshak that she and her husband would have candlelight dinners with their kids on their lap. Or make use of the time when the kids are in school for dates.

5. Appreciate each other’s efforts. Parents may need to rethink their roles so that caring for the child is not exclusively one person’s responsibility, Marshak said. Couples who are raising kids with disabilities often feel depleted, or put upon, she said, when one parent does all of the caregiving. Sharing the responsibilities and giving credit for effort can help make you feel more like a team.


8 Simple Ways to Make Transitions Easier for Kids

A friend emailed me the other day and was asking for some tips on making daily transitions easier for her child. I sent her an email with these ideas and thought they might be useful to some of you. In all honesty, I need to remind myself of all of these A LOT. It is hard to remember them all when you have a lot to do during the course of the day and more than one kid to think about! That being said, when you have a child throwing a huge tantrum because you didn’t remember them… it reminds you that they are pretty important!

(this is a picture I snapped right after I told my daughter it was time to get off the ride… she wasn’t too excited about that transition :) )

There are many more things I could add, but today I am just sharing a few tips for helping make daily transitions easier for your kids… which ultimately makes your day a bit easier too. I would love to hear what works for you too… so make sure to share your fabulous thoughts in the comments!

1. Minimize the number of transitions your child has during the course of a day.

Don’t over-schedule your child… this can be hard with trying to fit in appointments, school, errands, etc. Make sure your child has plenty of time to play, hang out at home/outside, and just be a kid… no playdates or structured anything. Schedule down time on your calendar!

2. Build choice into each portion of your child’s day.

Sometimes you have to be creative with this. There is always a choice to be had. Your child can choose to say no… but if you give your child two choices and help him feel like he is getting to make the decision, he may choose one of your ideas instead of completely staging a revolt. Make sure you are OK with both choices before you offer them. As adults, most of us get to pick how we structure specific parts of our day… or at least the order in which we do things. Let your child lead the way as often as you can.

3. Communicate a lot.

Communicate verbally and visually and make sure to check in with your child to make sure she hasn’t missed any messages you’ve given. Often if my son is throwing a tantrum about leaving the park it is because he didn’t hear the two other times when I said we were leaving in 5 minutes. I try and make sure I make eye contact and get a verbal response that he heard/understood me.

4. Ask and actually listen.

As kids get older they get frustrated when mom is always dictating the schedule. Listen and take their needs into consideration. Tantrums are a way they will communicate if they can’t communicate in other ways or they feel that you aren’t listening to them when they try and use their words.

5. Use routines, schedules, transition objects, and timers to help with transitions.

Only use these if they help… you can tell if a timer doesn’t work for your kid because it makes them angry, anxious, or more frustrated. Often when my daughter needs to transition to something new (like leaving a fun game to go run errands at the grocery store), she takes a toy train with her as a transition object.

6. Make sure all basic needs have been met.

These are often reasons for tantrums during a transition. Is your child tired? (Did you have an extra busy day?) What did he/she eat? When? Has your child slept enough? Is she not feeling good? thirsty? etc. It is much harder to handle doing something you don’t want to do if basic needs haven’t been taken care of. Anything can cause a tantrum at the end of a long, busy, exhausting day, no matter how old a child (or adult) is. I have had plenty of my share of evening tantrums as a tired pregnant mom!

7. Be aware of transition timing.

How often are transitions happening? If your child is having to transition between things too frequently that is definitely something that will cause extra frustration. Think about the transition and decide if it is really necessary right at that moment? If your child is happily playing on the swings, does she need to get off if no one is waiting? Adults often want to help kids have a lot of experiences when often kids want to repeat the same activity or experience again and again and again. They often don’t move at the same pace as adults. I think we could learn a lot from kids by slowing down.

8. Look at yourself and your own schedule and assess things a bit.

Do you feel like your child is getting enough undivided attention from you? Could you give more? What are some creative ways to focus more on your child during a busy day? If your lives are over scheduled or busy then it may also be that your child has learned that the tantrum is a great way to get to spend more time with you.


Is My Child Okay? Six Steps for Assessing a Young Child’s Development

Written by Kerby T. Alvy, Ph.D.

This is a question that every parent and childcare worker asks when they notice something odd in the behavior and functioning of a little child. How can one best ascertain if a problem or delay really exists? There are six important areas of child development to examine in order to determine whether a child is progressing at a normal pace. Read on for some examples of age-appropriate skills to look for.

1. Movement (physical development).

  • 4 to 5 months old: Does baby do push-ups or bring hands and toys to his or her mouth?
  • 9 to 12 months old: Does child sit independently, crawl, creep or scoot forward?
  • 18 to 23 months old: Does child climb into chairs, walk forward, turn pages in a book?
  • 3 years old: Does child run easily, falling rarely or kick a ball forward?
  • 4 years old: Does child run easily, or copy a circle and a square?

2. Thinking and learning (cognitive development).

  • 4 to 5 months old: Does baby listen to conversations or follow conversations with eyes?
  • 9 to 12 months old: Does child explore with hands and mouth, or find hidden objects?
  • 18 to 23 months old: Does child put small toys into a cup, basket or box?
  • 3 years old: Can child tell his or her first name (or nickname) and last name?
  • 4 years old: Does child know the difference between boys and girls?

3. Communication (receptive and expressive language development).

  • 4 to 5 months old: Does baby imitate some sounds you make (like a cough)?
  • 9 to 12 months old: Does child respond to own name (for example, look up when called)?
  • 18 to 23 months old: Does child point to objects or people to express a need?
  • 3 years old: Does child use words that describe things like “it’s icky” or, “I’m hungry”?
  • 4 years old: Does child refer to self as “me” or “I” in addition to name?

4. The Senses: Vision, hearing and touch (sensory development).

  • 4 to 5 months old: Does baby turn head or eyes toward a sound?
  • 9 to 12 months old: Does child enjoy or put up with different types of touch?
  • 18 to 23 months old: Does child respond when name is called?
  • 3 years old: Does child move to or hum along with music?
  • 4 years old: Is child mostly comfortable with change or going from one activity to another?

5. Relating to self and others (social and emotional development).

  • 4 to 5 months old: Does baby usually quiet or calm down when talked to, held or rocked?
  • 9 to 12 months old: Does child enjoy watching (and may play) games like peek-a-boo?
  • 18 to 23 months old: Does child approach other children?
  • 3 years old: Does child take turns in games?
  • 4 years old: Does child enjoy humor (for example, laughs at silly faces or voices)?

6. Self-care (daily living skills).

  • 4 to 5 months old: Does baby sleep regularly for three to four hours at a time?
  • 9 to 11 months old: Does child feed self with fingers?
  • 18 to 23 months old: Does child pull off simple clothes (such as socks)?
  • 3 years old: Does child wash his or her hands without help?
  • 4 years old: Does child brush his or her teeth by themself or with help?

In most instances, parents and childcare helpers will find that the child is developing in line with these types of normative age expectations. In cases where the child does not appear to be progressing normally, you need to use more detailed resources to obtain a fuller appreciation of the child’s current development.

One such resource is the non-profit Center for the Improvement of Child Caring (CICC), which created The CICC Discovery Tool to provide specific guidelines in which to evaluate a child’s development. The Tool includes a comprehensive online questionnaire to fill out for children under five to get a good gauge on whether that particular child may have special needs that require professional attention. Armed with a developmental profile from a credible child caring organization, a parent or childcare worker is in a better position to advocate for the child and get the proper intervention and care to set him or her on the best path possible.

Packing Tips For Families

When you have kids, packing can be a nightmare.  If you are packing for a weekend trip or preparing for a long vacation, you should really check out these 7 really helpful packing tips for families.

1)  Make a list. You can find the one I use here.  When I do a “final check” with this list, I always discover something I have missed.

2)  Pack good carry on bags. You’ll want to include healthy snacks, little treats, small toys/games, movies, special blankets/stuffies, water bottles, iPods/iPads, etc…  If you are flying, you will want to pack a pen for customs forms/baggage tags and some gum/suckers for the kids (to help with their ears when the plane is landing).  A change of clothes and bathing suits are helpful too… in case luggage gets lost or delayed.

3)  Pack a lunch. I detest being forced to buy overpriced and junky food when on a road trip, spending time in an airport, or staying in a hotel room.  I always bring supplies (that don’t need to be refrigerated) that I can use to prepare a simple picnic lunch.  I like unsweetened applesauce, bananas, bread, and peanut butter.  It’s not fancy… but it’s economical, tasty, and keeps my boys happy and full.

4)  Put together a bag of basic medical supplies. I always pack Gravol, Benadryl, Tylenol, bandaids, a thermometer, ear drops, etc…  There is nothing worse than being in a strange city (with a sick child) searching for an all night pharmacy.

5)  Use sealable storage bags. I use bags to: keep organized, identify special outfits, isolate dirty items,  and hold wet stuff.

6)  Pack light (especially if you will have access to a washer and dryer).  Try to choose multi-functioning outfits and items that can be layered.  Be selective, and only take what you really think you are going to need.  Packing light saves baggage charges, makes it easier to transport luggage through the airport, and helps with fitting luggage into the truck of a rental car.

7)  Stay organized – Some people recommend rolling your clothes, but I prefer them folded in neat piles so I can see what I have and keep things organized.  I pack all three boys in one suitcase (divided into three sections).

I hope you find these packing tips helpful.  Vacations are a lot of fun, but it’s important to be prepared.   What’s your best packing tip for families?


Tough Love: 10 Reasons Why Special Needs Moms Should get A Special Thank You on Mother’s Day

Karen Wang mother and child

A mother of a person with a disability prioritizes love. Messy love. Around-the-clock, non-stop love. Tough love. Turbo-charged love. Drop-everything-and-go love. Personally, I don’t think I really understood or experienced unconditional love until I became my son’s primary caregiver and advocate.

But there’s a big risk to that kind of love. There’s short-term stress from dealing with everyday behaviors and there’s long-term stress from quality of life issues, school planning and transitional planning. All that stress has an effect on a person’s body and mind. Caregiving doesn’t take a holiday.

This Mother’s Day, consider these ten facts about mothers of individuals with disabilities, taken from the pages of peer-reviewed medical and scientific journals.


1. Education

Mothers of individuals with developmental disabilities are disproportionately more likely to put their own education on hold to become a full-time caregiver, compared to mothers of children without disabilities.


2. Employment

Mothers of children with disabilities are less likely to have paid employment because of the demands of caregiving than mothers of children without disabilities.


3. Financial Stress

Because of their lower income, mothers of children with disabilities are more likely to report financial stress than mothers of children without disabilities.  Almost 30 percent of families raising a child with a disability live in poverty.


4. Health

The American Academy of Pediatrics found that “Caregiving demands contributed directly to both the psychological and the physical health of the caregivers. The practical day-to-day needs of the child created challenges for parents. The influence of social support provided by extended family, friends, and neighbors on health outcomes was secondary to that of the immediate family working closely together. Family function affected health directly and also mediated the effects of self-perception, social support, and stress management.”


5. Depression

Mothers of children with intellectual disability or autism are more likely to experience moderate to severe depression than mothers of children without disabilities.Environmental stressors are thought to trigger the onset of depression.


6. More Stress  & Less Support (Tube Feeding)

According to the Journal of the American Dietetic Association, ”Mothers of children requiring tube feeding experienced significantly greater stress than mothers of children with disabilities who do not require tube feedings. Mothers of children requiring tube feeding also receive less support from family and friends.”


7. Sickness

Caregivers spend more days sick with an infectious disease and have a weaker immune response.


8. Chronic Health Problems

Caregivers are more likely to develop a chronic health problem such as diabetes, heart disease, arthritis or cancer.


9. Anxiety & Abuse

Depressed caregivers are more likely to have anxiety disorders and/or substance abuse. Depression also increases the risk of suicide.


10. Longevity

Family caregivers are at risk for increased and/or premature mortality.

I write this as a mother who left her teaching career and unfinished doctoral dissertation to care full-time for a child with a developmental disability.  I am also a mother who has survived cancer and has sought treatment for frequent infections, most recently pneumonia.  I know what I’m risking on a daily basis and I have no regrets.  And I’m going to enjoy Mother’s Day.



Eight Things You Ought to Know About Autism (but Might Not)

By: Dan Tynan

How much do you really know about autism? Probably not as much as you think. To mark National Autism Awareness month, here are eight things you may not be aware of — yet.

1. Not all forms of autism are equal.
The appropriate name for this condition is “autism spectrum disorders” (ASD). As the name implies, it encompasses a wide range of conditions, from high-functioning individuals with Asperger syndrome to people who require constant one-to-one care, with many stops in between. (For more about what constitutes autism, see this guide from Autism Speaks.)

This has caused a huge rift in the autism community between those who believe parents of ASD children should be the primary advocates for autistic people and those who believe autistic people should be allowed to represent themselves.

2. It’s kind of a geek thing.
There appears to be an unusually high presence of autism in the tech world, in large part because the characteristics associated with high-functioning autism are often considered a plus when working with computers. For example, Aspiritech, a software testing company in Chicago, hires only high-functioning people with ASD as test engineers because of their attention to detail and affinity for repetitive tasks.

Bit Torrent inventor Bram Cohen and hacker/journalist Adrian Lamo are examples of high-tech figures whose Asperger diagnoses are public knowledge; some speculate that such highly successful geeks as Bill Gates, Steve Wozniak, and Mark Zuckerberg may also be on the spectrum. (Others posthumously diagnosed with high-functioning ASD include Mozart, Einstein, and Nikola Tesla, though there’s obviously no way to verify any of that.)

Eight Things You Ought to Know About Autism (but Might Not)

Albert Einstein, who may (or may not) have had Asperger syndrome. (David Wallace/Flickr)

3. It is way more common than you might suspect.
One in 68 American children has been diagnosed with ASD, according to a March 2014 report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. That’s a rise of nearly 30 percent in just two years. For boys, the rate is one in 42. And that survey includes only 8-year-olds, so the actual number of people with ASD could be higher.

4. But it’s not an epidemic.
The biggest reason there are more cases of autism today is because doctors have gotten better at identifying it, according to analysis by the CDC. At the same time, they’ve also expanded the definition of what ASD is. Conditions that might have been diagnosed as early onset schizophrenia or “mental retardation” a decade ago are now called autism. Asperger syndrome, once considered a separate but related disorder, has also been rolled into the definition.

5. Autism is tricky to diagnose.
There is no blood test for ASD. Diagnoses are based entirely on observations of behavior and cognitive development. This process is complicated by the fact that many people with ASD also suffer from other neurological disorders such as ADHD, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and Tourette syndrome. So, while diagnoses have improved a lot in the past decade, it’s still possible that some who are diagnosed with ASD may not actually have it.

6. It is not caused by vaccines.
Even Generation Rescue founder Jenny McCarthy is finally backing away from this claim, after she and a handful of others made a lot of noise about it for the past few years.


Jenny McCarthy, anti-vaxx spokesmodel — until recently, anyway. (MingleMediaTV/Flickr)

After examining numerous scientific studies, the independent Institute of Medicine concluded in August 2011 that the use of vaccines — particularly the measles mumps rubella (MMR) vaccine routinely given to children under the age of 6 — has no relationship to the rise in ASD cases. The American Academy of Pediatrics issued a similar report in April 2013. The anti-vaccination movement has, however, helped spur an increase in whooping cough, measles, and other communicable diseases that had been all but wiped out in the United States.

Nobody actually knows what causes ASD, though researchers have identified some genetic links.

7. It can’t be cured.
In fact, some autism advocates bristle at the notion that ASD is a condition in need of a cure. Others in the ASD community are desperate for a solution to the daily struggles of their autistic offspring. But while autism isn’t a disease that can be cured, it is a disorder that can be treated. The sooner intervention is started, the more likely a child with ASD is to lead a full and satisfying life, which means that early detection is vital.

8. It’s not just about kids.
Though most attention is focused on autistic children, there are hundreds of thousands of adults living with ASD. Once an autistic child turns 21, however, his support system often evaporates. An adult with ASD may be unable to do many things other adults take for granted — like drive a car, sign a lease, vote, or get married. Even high-functioning individuals may need special accommodations and support.

As autism activism increases, though, that’s slowly changing. Organizations like the Washington, D.C.-based Autistic Self Advocacy Network (ASAN) are working to protect the civil rights of autistic individuals and to change public policy and perceptions about the condition. The Farms & Ranches Enabling people with Disablities (FRED) organization finds adult housing for people with ASD and other developmental disorders.


Oral Health for People with Special Needs

Educational Materials

Oral Health Promotion Card and Brochure for Children with Special Needs are now available in Spanish. These Oral Health Promotions Cards and Brochures list evidence-based oral health messages and oral health resources. Brochures are perfect to hand to clients or patients when using one of the Oral Health Promotion Cards to discuss good oral health habits. Check out Oral Health Promotions Cards and Brochuresfor all ages. Download today!

WA Directory of Dentists for Patients with Special Needs.

Directory of Dentists for Patients with Developmental or Acquired Special Needs

Oral Health Fact Sheets for People with Special Needs

Fact sheets are for mild to moderate manifestations of a number of special needs conditions. For most conditions there are separate fact sheets for Dental Professionals, Medical Professionals, and Parents and Caregivers. Fact sheets can be found on the University of Washington Oral Medicine website.


iPads especially helpful for special-needs students

By , Published: April 18, 2012

At Belle View Elementary School in Fairfax County, Steven Moshuris, 7, a second-grader who has autism, is using an iPad to communicate to his teachers that he is hungry, and would like pizza and chicken nuggets for lunch.

Students in Jennifer Sherman’s 11th-grade English class at the Lab School of Washington, a private school for students with learning disabilities, are dissecting T.S. Eliot’s “The Waste Land” this spring, using an iPad app that provides notes on the text, editing notes from Ezra Pound, video interviews with scholars and interpretive readings.

At Charles Carroll Middle School in Prince George’s County, students in one of Joy Long’s seventh-grade science classes recently used iPads to make a video call to a math teacher in another room for a refresher on how to find the average distance a toy car traveled in five trials. Seventy percent of the students in that class have a learning disability.

Two years after Apple introduced the iPad, the tablet is becoming increasingly popular with educators of students with special needs, especially learning disabilities andautism spectrum disorders. These teachers and administrators are repeatedly turning to iPads, which cost between $300 and $800, and other tablets to improve communication, reading and math skills, to virtually dissect animals or to give students an easier way to take notes.

Results, they say, are promising.

“I feel like it’s a much more powerful day” for students, said Katherine Schantz, head of the Lab School, which has about 100 iPads for approximately 350 students. “We’ve reduced the number of minutes that are spent in frustration.”

At Herndon’s private Auburn School for students with social and communication difficulties, the “kids enjoy being able to sit in a beanbag or walk around,” said Linnea Nelson, head of the school. “The portability of a tablet allows that. They’re also not having to look over a computer at a teacher or their peers while they are having a discussion, so using a tablet doesn’t impede eye contact.”

With touch screens instead of pen and paper or a point-and-click mouse, tablets can be much easier to use by students with fine motor difficulties. They also help disorganized students by consolidating calendars, memos and notes all in one device.

Bryce Ballard, 13, a ninth-grader at Auburn School, has found his Samsung Galaxy helpful in taking notes and keeping track of assignments.

“I can’t even read my own handwriting,” Ballard said. “That doesn’t help the whole note-taking process. [The tablet] promotes great learning for me and helps keep me interested.”

Educators also think these hard-to-motivate students are excited about using something that is a hip piece of technology, so that interests them more than traditional learning methods.

“The iPads are engaging because there’s instant feedback,” said Jennifer Durham, the elementary curriculum coordinator at Lab School. “It’s easy to operate, it can read to them if they need it to read to them, you can make it bigger, you can make it smaller.”

Fairfax County Public Schools’ Department of Special Services, which oversees special education, has bought 110 iPads, and more have been bought by individual schools or parents, said Cheryl Temple, the manager of assistive technology services for the school district. Prince William Schools have ordered 1,510 iPads for students, teachers and administrators to use, particularly in special education. Loudoun County Public Schools have bought 12 iPads for special-needs students to use as communication devices.

Prince George’s County Public Schools bought iPads for every student at four low-income middle schools, including Charles Carroll Middle, as part of a pilot program, totaling more than 3,000 devices.

“Sometimes in a traditional classroom, where teachers are asking questions, the ones that are getting it are answering, and the ones who may take a little longer to process it may not have the time to respond,” said Eric L. Wood, who was principal at Charles Carroll when the tablet program launched in October.

Wood says the school is using an app called eClicker “to level the playing field.” With eClicker, science teacher Long posts a question to the class on the iPads, then sees individual students’ responses as they click on their tablets in real time. She knows who is getting the answers right, and who needs more help, without everyone else in the class knowing.

“They can use this tool much easier than they can paper and pencil,” Long said of students who struggle with fine motor skills. “I just see this as meeting them where they are in order to increase their skills and abilities and even their participation.”

Tablets, according to school officials, allow students to work at their own pace and with a level of privacy formerly unheard of in the classroom. That can help remove the stigma that often comes with being a special-education student.

“If you’re in high school and you’re reading ‘Diary of a Wimpy Kid’ because that’s what you can read, and I’m reading ‘Pride and Prejudice’ because that’s what I can read, it would be embarrassing, if we were both sitting there with our hard-covered books,” Lab School’s Durham said.

“We see kids who carry around books that they can’t read because they know developmentally that what they can read is not appropriate, and it makes them feel stupid. So by giving them this technology, I really think that helps. It evens the playing field because it puts them in a private space.”

Even with the new technology, progress still requires hard work, and lots of it, with an experienced teacher or therapist and committed parents leading the way.

“I want people to realize that it’s a great tool,” said Joan L. Green, a speech-language pathologist in Potomac who specializes in assistive technology. “And when used appropriately, it can speed up progress toward goals. But it’s not a quick fix, and it’s not the miracle worker that some people portray it to be.”

“There’s no magical tool,” said Rosemary Genuario, a special education teacher at Belle View Elementary. “But it’s certainly a fabulous tool.”


Selecting a toy for a child who has a disability?

Here are the questions the play experts at the National Lekotek Center ask when choosing developmentally appropriate toys for kids with special needs. Use these questions to guide you in making the right match between the child for whom you’re buying and the toys in the Toys”R”Us Toy Guide for Differently-Abled Kids.

Does the toy respond with lights, sounds or movement to engage the child?
Are there contrasting colors?Does it have a scent?
Is there texture?

Will the toy provide a challenge without frustration?
What is the force required to activate?
What are the number and complexity of steps required to activate?

Will the toy be easy to store? Is there space
in the home?
Can the toy be used in a variety of positions such 
as side-lying or on a wheelchair tray?

Can play be open-ended with no definite right
or wrong way?
Is it adaptable to the child’s individual style, ability 
and pace?

Is it a toy that will help the child with special needs feel like “any other kid?”
Does it tie in with other activities, like books and art sets, that promote other forms of play?

Does the toy allow for creativity, uniqueness and making choices? Will it give the child experience with a variety of media?

Does it have adjustable height, sound volume,
speed and level of difficulty?

Does the toy provide activities that reflect both developmental and chronological ages?
Does it reflect the child’s interests and age?

Does the toy fit with the child’s size and strength?
Does it have moisture resistance?
Are the toy and its parts sized appropriately?
Can it be washed and cleaned?

Will the child be an active participant during use?
Will the toy encourage social engagement with others?

The toys featured in the Toys”R”Us Toy Guide for Differently-Abled Kids have been selected and evaluated by the National Lekotek Center, a nonprofit organization dedicated to making play accessible for children with disabilities. For assistance in selecting toys or play activities for a child who has disabilities, please visit the Lekotek website at www.lekotek.org.

How Technology Has Changed the Face of Autism


When you first meet James, you realize immediately that there’s something different about him. He’s 16 but reads at a second-grade level. He speaks loudly, often interrupting other people’s conversations. He has difficulty recounting the events of his day or sustaining attention to any conversation. He has trouble with simple arithmetic.


Like tens of thousands of other children, James has an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), which makes life a daily challenge for his parents, Marie and Rob, who live just outsideWashington, D.C.

How Technology Has Changed the Face of Autism

“I think … therefore I am not a diagnosis” by John Jay Glenn (viaFlickr).


Yet, like many with ASD, James has some unusual abilities. He can quote dialog verbatim from nearly any Disney or Star Wars movie, Marie says. He can find places he’s visited in the past by poring over satellite images on Google Maps, Rob adds. And with the help of an iPad outfitted by the special-needs coordinators at his school, James can lead something approaching a normal life for a high school student.


James’ story isn’t all that unique. The number of autistic children is staggering — one in 68 has been diagnosed with ASD, according to studies by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. That means there’s one in every two or three classrooms in America.

I can name half a dozen families that have at least one member with ASD, and I bet you can, too. Yet most of what I thought I knew about autism came from watching movies like Rain Man or reading books by Oliver Sacks.

Because April is National Autism Awareness month, I thought I’d try to learn more about this complex and mysterious disorder. One of the more remarkable things I’ve discovered is both how deeply embedded ASD is in the world of tech, and how technology is helping to make a huge difference in the lives of people who live with it each day.

The iPad influence
Assistive technology for the developmentally disabled has been available for decades, but until recently most of it has been extremely low tech or extremely expensive. The iPad is helping to change that.


For example, many people with ASD are nonverbal, even if they can understand what’s being said to them and formulate responses in their brains. In the past, parents might have spent $8,000 or more on a dedicated single-purpose computer to help their kids communicate via symbols. With the tap of a picture, the machine would recite the word associated with it; tap several in a row, and it would string the words together to form rudimentary sentences. Now kids with ASD can get many of the same capabilities by installing AssistiveWare’s $220 Proloquo2Go app.



Rob says carrying an iPad removed the stigma of carrying around a clunky device that screamed, “I am different from everyone else.”


“The iPad made it kind of cool,” he says. “He’s not the weird kid with the electronic box on his desk; he’s just another kid with an iPad.”


Communication is just one challenge for kids with ASD that can be addressed via apps. Another is learning how to engage socially, says Shira Lee Katz, senior director of education content for Common Sense Media. An app like The Social Express Home can help kids understand social norms and how to respond appropriately to others, Katz says, while Calm Counter can teach them how to cool down when they get frustrated and angry.


Children with ASD also often lack executive functioning skills, such as the ability to manage tasks and to move from one to the next. Apps like Time Timer and Choiceworks can help kids structure the time they spend on each task and follow visually oriented schedules, says Marbea Tammaro, assistive technology team specialist for Arlington Public Schools in Virginia. Even the basic apps that come with every tablet — like the calendar, to-do lists, and the camera — can be extremely useful for creating visual reminders and managing day-to-day activities, adds her colleague, Josh Taylor, an autism specialist for Arlington.


But the number and variety of apps for developmentally disabled children is overwhelming, Taylor adds, and every child is different. The best solution is to work with your school’s special-education team to find the apps that match your child’s situation.


Saved by the Net
The other great technological innovation that helps members of the ASD community is the Internet itself. For example, iPads with special needs apps aren’t always covered by insurance, so some families that can’t afford to buy them have turned to crowdfunding. Sites likeGiveForward and Crowdrise have helped ASD families buy the tech they needed, says Shannon Des Roches Rosa, a writer and autism activist whose 13-year-old son is on the spectrum.


There are hundreds of Web resources devoted to the topic — from Facebook groups like Autism – technically speaking, which is aimed at parents of autistic kids in the technology business, to social networks like MyAutismTeam to activist sites like the Autistic Self Advocacy Network and sites like Thinking Person’s Guide to Autism, which combines a bit of everything.


Sometimes, though, the solution isn’t always cutting edge. A child who’s hypersensitive to sounds can be calmed with something as simple as noise-canceling headphones, Rosa says. And instead of putting a GPS tracking device on her son, she used a med-alert bracelet with her cellphone number.


Rosa also warns against lingering on sites that focus on the stigma of being autistic. “You need to get through that thicket of misinformation, negativity, and pity, because it will just drag you down,” she says. “You need be aware of the rights and needs of autistic people, and get to work on fighting for them.”


And if you weren’t aware of all that before, well, you are now.


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